Employment Law In Belgium: A Guide For Global Companies

Global People Strategist

Understanding employment law in Belgium is important for global companies expanding their operations in this European country. It is known for its strong worker protections and comprehensive legal framework, and it offers specific regulations that govern the employer-employee relationship. 

This guide provides an overview of key aspects of Belgium employment law, helping global companies ensure compliance and navigate the complexities of the Belgium labor market effectively.

Overview of Belgium Employment Law

Belgium’s employment law is primarily governed by federal legislation, supplemented by sector-specific collective agreements and regional regulations. Key legislative sources include:

1. Belgium Labor Code 

The Belgium Labor Code (Code du travail/Arbeidswet) sets out the fundamental principles and rules governing employment relationships, including terms of employment, working conditions, and termination procedures.

2. Collective Bargaining Agreements 

Sector-specific collective agreements negotiated between employers’ organizations and trade unions establish additional terms and conditions of employment, such as wages, working hours, and benefits.

3. Regional Regulations 

Belgium is divided into three regions, Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels-Capital Region, each with its own regulations governing certain aspects of employment, including language requirements and employment permits.

Key Aspects of Belgium Employment Law

1. Employment Contracts and Terms

Employment contracts in Belgium must be in writing and include essential terms such as job description, salary, benefits, working hours, and notice periods for termination. Contracts may be for an indefinite period or fixed-term, with specific rules governing each type.

2. Working Hours and Overtime

Standard working hours in Belgium are 38 hours per week, with a maximum of 8 hours per day. Overtime work is regulated and must be compensated either through overtime pay or time off in lieu, as stipulated in collective agreements or individual employment contracts.

3. Leaves and Holidays

Employees in Belgium are entitled to various types of leave, including annual leave, maternity/paternity leave, parental leave, and sick leave. Annual leave entitlement is typically 20 days per year but may vary based on industry and collective agreements.

4. Equal Treatment and Non-Discrimination

Belgium law prohibits discrimination based on factors such as age, gender, disability, sexual orientation, religion, and ethnicity. Employers must ensure equal treatment in recruitment, promotion, training, and dismissal processes.

5. Termination of Employment

Termination of employment in Belgium occurs through resignation, dismissal, or mutual agreement. Notice periods or severance pay obligations apply depending on the length of service and reasons for termination, as outlined in the Belgium Labor Code.

Compliance and Best Practices

1. Compliance with Collective Agreements

Global companies operating in Belgium must comply with sector-specific collective agreements that apply to their industry. These agreements establish additional obligations regarding wages, benefits, working conditions, and dispute resolution.

2. Employee Representation and Works Councils

In companies with a certain number of employees, establishing a Works Council or Employee Representative Committee (ERC) is mandatory. These bodies facilitate communication between management and employees, providing a forum for discussing workplace issues and negotiating collective agreements.

3. Data Protection and Privacy

Compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is mandatory in Belgium, requiring employers to protect employee data and ensure the lawful processing of personal information.

4. Health and Safety Regulations

Employers have a duty to provide a safe and healthy working environment for employees, comply with occupational health and safety regulations and conduct risk assessments as required by law.


Navigating Belgium law of employment is essential for global companies to operate successfully and compliantly in Belgium’s competitive business environment. By understanding and adhering to the legal framework governing employment relationships, businesses can protect employee rights, mitigate legal risks, and foster a positive workplace culture. 

Global People Strategist is your trusted partner for navigating Belgian employment law and its complexities. Our resources help you ensure global companies comply with regulations, fostering a harmonious workplace environment while mitigating legal risks. By leveraging our resources, businesses can confidently expand into Belgium, safeguarding employee rights and achieving sustainable growth in compliance with local labor laws. Partner with us to streamline your HR operations and thrive in the dynamic Belgium market.

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