Russia

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Country Snapshot

The GPS Country Snapshot includes 25 sections of information about labor law compliance in Russia. See a sample of popular sections below.

Termination of Employment

According to Russia's Labor Code, an employee can terminate an employment contract by providing written notice of at least two weeks to the employer. A seasonal employee must provide three days' notice to the employer if they terminate their employment before the end of the season. An employer of seasonal employees must provide seven days' written notice to the employee if they terminate an employee before the end of the season. Employers and employees may mutually agree to terminate an employment contract before the expiration of the notice period. Notice periods are generally stipulated in individual employment contracts or collective agreements. An employer must give two months' notice to employees if the organization is being dissolved. Employers are not required to provide notice if an employee is terminated for cause.

Work Permits

Foreigners over 18 years of age who wish to work in Russia must obtain a work permit. The employer has to apply to the Ministry of Internal Affairs to obtain the work permit. The following information is required:

  • First and last name (as well as a patronymic, if applicable) of the foreign citizen
  • Date of birth of the foreign citizen
  • State of permanent residence of the foreign citizen
  • Address of the permanent residence of the foreign citizen
  • Duration of employment
  • Type of work performed by the foreign citizen
  • Place of work
  • Terms of employment of the foreign citizen
  • A photograph of the foreigner
  • Copy of the foreigner's educational qualifications 
  • A document of identification, valid for at least six months.

The work permit is issued for 1 year and is renewable. 

Paid Annual Leave

Russia's Labor Code grants a total of 140 days of paid maternity leave to pregnant women: 70 days before the delivery and 70 days after the delivery. In the case of multiple births, the leave is extended to 84 days before and after delivery. In the case of abnormal birth, it is extended to 86 days before and after delivery. Finally, in the case of the birth of 2 or more children, it is extended to 110 days before and after delivery. The employee is entitled to receive 100% of their earnings (up to a statutory maximum) during maternity leave, paid by the Social Security Fund of the Russian Federation. This benefit is paid up to a maximum of RUB 383,179 (Russian ruble). The maximum maternity allowance is RUB 23,011 in 2023 (for mothers who gave birth to 1 child and did not have an abnormal birth).

Pregnant employees may not be employed in overtime or night work. They may also not work on weekends or public holidays. Finally, they may not travel for business. The law also prohibits the dismissal of pregnant employees unless the organization is being liquidated.

Working Hours

Russia's Labor Code states that the standard duration of working time cannot exceed 40 hours in a week. The employer is responsible for keeping a record of the actual working time of each employee. Employees who work longer than 40 hours per week are eligible for overtime. The law establishes reduced working hours as follows:

  • For employees under 16 years of age, the working time is up to 24 hours a week.
  • For employees between the ages of 16 to 18, the working time is up to 35 hours a week.
  • For disabled employees, the working time is up to 35 hours a week.
  • For employees who work in harmful and/or hazardous conditions, the working time is up to 36 hours a week.

The length of working time on days preceding non-working holidays is reduced by one hour.

Maternity Leave

Russia's Labor Code grants a total of 140 days of paid maternity leave to pregnant women: 70 days before the delivery and 70 days after the delivery. In the case of multiple births, the leave is extended to 84 days before and after delivery. In the case of abnormal birth, it is extended to 86 days before and after delivery. Finally, in the case of the birth of 2 or more children, it is extended to 110 days before and after delivery. The employee is entitled to receive 100% of their earnings (up to a statutory maximum) during maternity leave, paid by the Social Security Fund of the Russian Federation. This benefit is paid up to a maximum of RUB 383,179 (Russian ruble). The maximum maternity allowance is RUB 23,011 in 2023 (for mothers who gave birth to 1 child and did not have an abnormal birth).

Pregnant employees may not be employed in overtime or night work. They may also not work on weekends or public holidays. Finally, they may not travel for business. The law also prohibits the dismissal of pregnant employees unless the organization is being liquidated.

Minimum Wage

The minimum wage in Russia is calculated every month and cannot be less than the subsistence level for working citizens. According to Art 129 of the Labor Code, the following payments and bonuses are not included in the minimum wage:

  • Payments for overtime work
  • Payments for work under harmful, especially hazardous conditions
  • Bonuses for anniversaries
  • Bonuses for inventions and rationalization proposals
  • Financial aid.

The minimum wage is subject to annual indexation, taking into account the inflation rate.

As of January 1, 2023, the Federal Minimum Wage is set at RUB 16,242 (Russian rubles) per month.

Country Profile

The GPS Country Profile contains detailed information on over 60 topics related to labor law compliance within Russia.
  • Type of Employment Relationship
  • Permanent Employment
  • Fixed-Term or Specific-Purpose Contracts
  • Temporary Employment Contracts
  • Part-time Employment
  • Young Worker Employment
  • Vendors and Independent Contractors
  • Types of Contracts
  • Probationary Period
  • Termination of the Contract of Employment
  • Grounds for Termination
  • Notice of Dismissal
  • Fair Dismissal
  • Redundancy
  • Unfair Dismissal
  • Suspension of Contract of Employment
  • Severance Benefits
  • Hours of Work
  • Work Week and Timekeeping
  • Night Work and Shift Work
  • Overtime
  • Remote Work
  • Required Time Off
  • Public Holidays
  • Annual Leave
  • Sick Leave
  • Maternity
  • Other Forms of Leave
  • Social Insurance and Retirement
  • Social Security Contribution
  • National Retirement Scheme
  • Dependents’/Survivors Benefit
  • Life and Disability Insurance/Benefit
  • Statutory Allowances
  • Compensation and Benefits
  • Minimum Wage (Basic Wage)
  • Bonuses, Profit Sharing and Other Compensation
  • Medical Insurance
  • Work Environment
  • Workplace Safety and Health
  • Prohibition of Discrimination
  • Prohibition of Harassment
  • Data Protection and Privacy
  • Whistleblowers and Retaliation
  • Workers’ representation in the organization
  • Freedom of Association
  • Registration and Recognition of Unions
  • Trade Union Personality
  • Collective Bargaining and Agreements
  • Disputes and Settlements
  • Strikes and Lockouts
  • Unfair Labor Practices
  • Taxation of Compensation and Benefits
  • Income Tax
  • Taxation of Employee Benefits
  • Tax Filing and Payment Procedures
  • Double Tax Relief and Tax Treaties
  • Visas and Work Permits
  • Visas
  • Work Permits and Residence Permits

 Country Snapshot

Get the full Country Snapshot with 25 sections of information about labor law in Russia.